CARTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING OF THE MULTI-SOURCE GEOSPATIAL DATASETS BY GMT FOR MAPPING VARIABILITY IN GEOLOGIC SETTING AND BATHYMETRY OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN
The paper presents spatial analysis of the geological settings and topographic structure of the Pacific Ocean by Generic Mapping Tools (GMT). The tectonic and geomorphic features of the Pacific Ocean have a complex character and include trenches, ridges, East Pacific Rise, basins, fracture zones, rifts, rises, fault systems. As a result, the seafloor fabric has a variability in sedimentation reflecting correlations between the tectonic geomorphic markers and bathymetry. The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean on the Earth wit structural features of the seafloor playing an important role in global geomorphology. The methodology is based on the advanced cartographic toolset GMT which utilizes a shell scripting approach using a variety of modules. Data analysis was based on the comparison of high-resolution grids: 1 arc-min ETOPO1, 5-arc min GlobSed, 1-arc min gravity. The geological settings of the Pacific Ocean seafloor are referenced to the thematic layers plotted by GMT: Galapagos Rift, Eltanin and Menard Fault Systems, Gorda and Juan de Fuca ridges, fracture zones. The seabed regions characterized by the correlation in fault and fracture zones with tectonic delineations were identified. Variations of depths were compared with gravity and discussed. It was found that the rift zone of the South and East Pacific rises correlates with the topographic isolines. The tectonics showed strong correlation with the seafloor topography, and a weaker correlations with sedimentation, influenced by geomorphology, location, gravity anomalies and bathymetry. The paper contributes to the oceanographic and geologic studies of the Pacific Ocean and methodology of GMT. Specifically, five GMT scripts are presented for a reference and repeatability in similar geomatic research.
AMANTE, C.; EAKINS, B.W. Etopo1 1 arc-minute global relief model: Procedures, data sources and analysis, NOAA technical memorandum. DOI: 10.7289/V5C8276M, 2009.
BALLARD, R.D.; FRANCHETEAU, J.; JUTEAU, T.; RANGAN, C.; NORMARK, W. East Pacific rise at 21°N: The volcanic, tectonic, and hydrothermal processes of the central axis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 55, no. 1, p. 1–10, 1981.
BURSA, M. Primary and Derived Parameters of Common Relevance of Astronomy, Geodesy, and Geodynamics, Earth, Moon, and Planets, 69, p. 51–63, 1995.
CARBOTTE, S.; MACDONALD, K. East Pacific Rise 8°-10°30N: evolution of ridge segments and discontinuities from SeaMARC II and three-dimensional magnetic studies, Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, p. 6959, 1992.
CARBOTTE, S.; MACDONALD, K.C. Comparison of seafloor tectonic fabric at intermediate, fast, and super fast spreading ridges: influence of spreading rate, plate motions, and ridge segmentation on fault patterns, Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, p. 13609–13631, 1994.
DELANEY, J.R.; JOHNSON, H.P.; KARSTEN, J.L. The Juan de Fuca Ridge — hot spot-propagating rift system: new tectonic, geochemical, and magnetic data, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86, no. 12, p. 11747–11750, 1981.
DOBSON, J.E. Automated geography, Professional Geographer, 35, p. 135–143, 1983.
DUNN, R.A.; TOOMEY, D.R. Seismological evidence for three-dimensional melt migration beneath the East Pacific Rise, Nature, 388, p. 259–262, 1997.
EKMAN, M. Impacts of geodynamic phenomena on systems for height and gravity, Bulletin Géodésique, 63, p. 281–296, 1989.
EKMAN M. What Is the Geoid? Coordinate Systems, GPS, and the Geoid, Reports of the Finnish Geodetic Institute, 95, p. 49–51, 1995.
FORNARI, D.J.; VON DAMM, K.L.; BRYCE, J.G.; COWEN, J.P.; FERRINI, V.; FUNDIS, A.; LILLEY, M.D.; LUTHER III, G.W.; MULLINEAUX, L.S.; PERFIT, M.R. ET AL. The East Pacific Rise between 9°N and 10°N: Twenty-five years of integrated, multidisciplinary oceanic spreading center studies, Oceanography, 25, 1, p. 18–43, 2012.
GAINANOV, A.G. Gravimetric studies of the Earth's crust of the oceans. Moscow State University Press, Moscow, p. 240, 1980.
GAUGER, S.; KUHN, G.; GOHL, K.; FEIGL, T.; LEMENKOVA, P.; HILLENBRAND, C. Swath-bathymetric mapping. Reports on Polar and Marine Research, 557, 38–45, 2007.
HAIN, V.E. Regional geotectonics. North and South America, Antarctica and Africa. Moscow, Nedra, 1971.
HEISKANEN W.; MORITZ H. 1967, Physical Geodesy. W.H. Freeman & Co, San Francisco.
HORN, M.E.T. Solution techniques for large regional partitioning problems, Geographical Analysis, 27, p. 230–248, 1995.
JOHNSON, G.C.; TOOLE, J.M. Flow of deep and bottom waters in the Pacific at 10°N, Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 40, p. 371–394, 1993.
JOHNSTON, R.; SEMPLE, K. Classification using information statistics, Concepts and Techniques in Modern Geography, 37 (Norwich: Geo Books), 1983.
KAWABE, M.; TAIRA, K. Water masses and properties at 165°E in the western Pacific, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 103, p. 12941–12958, 1998.
KLAUČO, M.; GREGOROVÁ, B.; STANKOV, U.; MARKOVIĆ, V.; LEMENKOVA, P. Determination of ecological significance based on geostatistical assessment: a case study from the Slovak Natura 2000 protected area, Central European Journal of Geosciences, 5, 1, p. 28–42, 2013.
KLAUČO, M.; GREGOROVÁ, B.; STANKOV, U.; MARKOVIĆ, V.; LEMENKOVA, P. Landscape metrics as indicator for ecological significance: assessment of Sitno Natura 2000 sites, Slovakia, Ecology and Environmental Protection. Proceedings of the International Conference (Belarusian State University, March 19–20, 2014). Minsk, Belarus, 85–90, 2014.
KLAUČO, M.; GREGOROVÁ, B.; STANKOV, U.; MARKOVIĆ, V.; LEMENKOVA, P. Land planning as a support for sustainable development based on tourism: A case study of Slovak Rural Region, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 2, 16, p. 449–458, 2017.
KUHN, G., HASS, C., KOBER, M., PETITAT, M., FEIGL, T., HILLENBRAND, C. D., KRUGER, S., FORWICK, M., GAUGER, S., LEMENKOVA, P. The response of quaternary climatic cycles in the South-East Pacific: development of the opal belt and dynamics behavior of the West Antarctic ice sheet. In: Gohl, K. (ed). Expeditionsprogramm Nr. 75 ANT XXIII/4, Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, 2006.
LEMENKOVA, P. GMT Based Comparative Geomorphological Analysis of the Vityaz and Vanuatu Trenches, Fiji Basin, Geodetski List, 74, 1, p. 19–39, 2020a.
LEMENKOVA, P. Visualization of the geophysical settings in the Philippine Sea margins by means of GMT and ISC data, Central European Journal of Geography and Sustainable Development, 2, 1, p. 5–15, 2020b.
LEMENKOVA, P. Fractal surfaces of synthetical DEM generated by GRASS GIS module r.surf.fractal from ETOPO1 raster grid. Journal of Geodesy and Geoinformation, 7, 1, p. 86-102, 2020c.
LEMENKOVA, P. GEBCO Gridded Bathymetric Datasets for Mapping Japan Trench Geomorphology by Means of GMT Scripting Toolset. Geodesy and Cartography, 46, 3, p. 98–112, 2020d.
LEMENKOVA P. GMT Based Comparative Analysis and Geomorphological Mapping of the Kermadec and Tonga Trenches, Southwest Pacific Ocean, Geographia Technica, 14, p. 39–48, 2019a.
LEMENKOVA P. Topographic surface modelling using raster grid datasets by GMT: example of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, Pacific Ocean, Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics, 108, p. 9–22, 2019b.
LEMENKOVA, P. Geomorphological modelling and mapping of the Peru-Chile Trench by GMT, Polish Cartographical Review, 51, 4, p. 181–194, 2019c.
LEMENKOVA, P. Automatic Data Processing for Visualising Yap and Palau Trenches by Generic Mapping Tools, Cartographic Letters, 27, 2, p. 72–89, 2019d.
LEMENKOVA, P. Geophysical Modelling of the Middle America Trench using GMT, Annals of Valahia University of Targoviste. Geographical Series, 19, 2, p. 73–94, 2019e.
LEMENKOVA, P. AWK and GNU Octave Programming Languages Integrated with Generic Mapping Tools for Geomorphological Analysis, GeoScience Engineering, 65, 4, p. 1–22, 2019f.
LEMENKOVA, P. Statistical Analysis of the Mariana Trench Geomorphology Using R Programming Language, Geodesy and Cartography, 45, p. 57–84, 2019g.
LEMENKOVA, P. Testing Linear Regressions by StatsModel Library of Python for Oceanological Data Interpretation, Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, 34, p. 51–60, 2019h.
LEMENKOVA P., PROMPER C., GLADE T. Economic Assessment of Landslide Risk for the Waidhofen a.d. Ybbs Region, Alpine Foreland, Lower Austria, In Eberhardt et al. (eds.). 11th International Symposium on Landslides & the 2nd North American Symposium on Landslides & Engineered Slopes (NASL). Protecting society through improved understanding: June 2–8, 2012. Canada, Banff, p. 279–285, 2012.
LEMOINE, F.G.,; KENYON, S.C.; FACTOR, J.K.; et al. NASA/TP-1998-206861: The Development of the Joint NASA GSFC and NIMA Geopotential Model EGM96, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771 USA, 1998.
LISITSYN, A.P. Geological and geophysical studies in the southeastern Pacific Ocean. Oceanological research. Moscow, Nauka, 1976.
LITVIN, V.M. Morphostructure of the ocean seafloor. Nedra, Leningrad, 1987.
MALYS, S. The WGS84 reference frame. National Imagery and Mapping Agency, 1996.
MAMMERICKS, J.; ANDERSON, R.N.; MENARD, H.W.; SMITH, S.M. Morphology and tectonics evolution of the East-Central Pacific. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 86, 1, p. 111—118, 1975.
MORTIMER, N.; HERZER, R.H.; et al Basement geology from Three Kings Ridge to West Norfolk Ridge, southwest Pacific Ocean: evidence from petrology, geochemistry and isotopic dating of dredge samples, Marine Geology, 148, 3–4, p. 135–162, 1998.
OPENSHAW, S. Developing automated and smart spatial pattern exploration tools for geographical information systems applications, The Statistician, 44, p. 3–16, 1995.
RAPP, R.H. Geoid and Its Geophysical Interpretation. Global Geoid Determination. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, U.S., 1994.
SANDWELL, D.T.; MÜLLER, R.D.; SMITH, W.H.F.; GARCIA, E.; FRANCIS, R. New global marine gravity model from CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 reveals buried tectonic structure, Science, 346, p. 65–67, 2014.
SCHENKE, H.W.; LEMENKOVA, P. Zur Frage der Meeresboden-Kartographie: Die Nutzung von AutoTrace Digitizer für die Vektorisierung der Bathymetrischen Daten in der Petschora-See, Hydrographische Nachrichten, 81, p. 16–21, 2008.
SUETOVA, I.; USHAKOVA, L.; LEMENKOVA, P. Geoinformation mapping of the Barents and Pechora Seas. Geography and Natural Resources, 4, p. 138–142, 2005.
VAN ANDEL, Т.H.; BALLARD, R.D. The Galapagos rift at 86 °W: volcanism, structure and evolution of the rift valley, Journal of Geophysical Research, 84, 10, p. 5390–5406, 1979.
WESSEL, P., SMITH, W.H.F. Free software helps map and display data, EOS Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 72, 41, p. 441, 1991.
WESSEL, P.; SMITH, W.H.F. The Generic Mapping Tools. Version 4.5.18 Technical Reference and Cookbook. Computer software manual. U.S.A., 2018.
WESSEL, P.; SMITH, W.H.F.; SCHARROO, R.; LUIS, J.F.; WOBBE, F. Generic mapping tools: Improved version released, Eos Transactions AGU, 94, 45, p. 409– 410, 2013.
ZHIVAGO, A.V. Morphostructure of the bottom of the southeastern Pacific Ocean. Metalliferous sediments of the southeastern Pacific Ocean. Moscow, Nauka, 1979.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant MERCATOR the right of first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which allows the sharing of the work with recognition of the authorship of the work and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are authorized to sign additional contracts separately, for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (e.g., publish in an institutional repository or as a book chapter), with acknowledgment of authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are allowed and encouraged to publish and distribute their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their personal page) at any point before or during the editorial process, as this can generate productive changes as well as increase the impact and citation of the published work (see The Effect of Free Access).
- Authors are responsible for the content of the manuscript published in the journal.