MANDALA OF SUSTAINABILITY IN TOURISM

Abstract

 The acclaimed title “sustainable destination” has become a central premise among territorial management groups. However, the process of developing public policies to meet this condition has revealed reductionist and sometimes misguided treatments that fail to incorporate the true complexity of sustainability in tourism. The result? Disconnected, sporadic and ineffective actions, based on assumptions or individual interests of the territory's actors. The present essay aims to present a simplified and didactic proposal for a territorial planning tool (Mandala of Sustainability in Tourism – MST) in order to contribute to the pursuit of sustainability in tourism development. The MST is made up of 21 indicators, defined based on the analysis of international instruments and current national strategies in the area of tourism planning. The instrument covers the 7 dimensions of sustainability (environmental, territorial, political, cultural, social, economic and technological), developed to pragmatically guide local and regional tourism management groups.

Keywords: Sustainability Indicators; Tourism; Public Policy; Mandala of Sustainability in Tourism; Local Development.

Author Biographies

João Paulo Faria Tasso, University of Brasília, Brasília (DF), Brazil

PhD in Sustainable Development from the University of Brasília (UnB).Bachelor in Tourism from Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Post-Doctorate in Ethics, Public Policies and Tourism from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN). Leader of the Tourism and Sustainability Studies Laboratory (LETS/UnB). Adjunct Professor at the Center of Excellence in Tourism at the University of Brasília (CET/UnB).

David Leonardo Bouças da Silva, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luis (MA), Brazil
PhD in Administration (PPGA/UnB), Master in Sustainable Development (CDS/UnB), Adjunct Professor IV of the Department of Tourism and Hospitality at the Federal University of Maranhão (DETUH/UFMA). Researcher at the Tourism and Sustainability Studies Laboratory (LETS/UnB) and Coordinator of the Strategic Management of Destinations and Tourism Organizations research group (GEDOT/UFMA).
Elimar Pinheiro do Nascimento, University of Brasília, Brasília (DF), Brazil

Sociologist, PhD from the Université René Descartes, Paris V, and Post-Doctor from the Ecole Des Hautes Études in Sciences Sociales. Associate Professor III at the Center for Sustainable Development at the University of Brasília (CDS/UnB).

References

ABRAMOVAY, R. Muito além da economia verde. São Paulo: Ed. Abril, 2012.
AGBEDAHIN, A.V. Sustainable development, Education for Sustainable Development, and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: Emergence, efficacy, eminence, and future. Sustainable Development, v.27, n.4, p.669-680, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sd.1931]
AGYEIWAAH, E.; MCKERCHER, B.; SUNTIKUL, W. Identifying core indicators of sustainable tourism: A path forward?. Tourism Management Perspectives, v.24, p. 26-33, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2017.07.005
BARBIERI, J.C.; VASCONCELOS, I.F.G.; ANDREASSI, T.; VASCONCELOS, F.C. Inovação e sustentabilidade: novos modelos e proposições. RAE, v.50, n.2, p.146-154, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-75902010000200002
BELL, S.; MORSE, S. Breaking through the glass ceiling: who really cares about Sustainability indicators? Local Environment, 6, p.291-309, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1080/13549830120073284
BENI, M.C. Saturação e Rejeição ao Turismo nas Destinações Turísticas. RBTUR, São Paulo, v.14, n.2, p.1-8, 2020. https://doi.org/10.7784/rbtur.v14i2.1847
BLANCAS, F.J.; LOZANO-OYOLA, M.; GONZALEZ, M.; GUERRERO, F.M.; CABALLERO, R. How to use sustainability indicators for tourism planning: The case of rural tourism in Andalusia (Spain). Science of the Total Environment, 412, p.28-45, 2011.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.09.066
BRŠČIĆ, K.; PLANAGUMA, L. P.; RASCHI, A.; MARCHI, V.; ŠUGAR, T.; LOVREČIĆ, K.; POLJUHA, D. Can indicators for sustainable tourism improve tourism planning in the coastal destinations? Empirical evidence from Catalonia, Istrian Region and Tuscany Region. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, v.68, n.2, p.144-155, 2020. https://doi.org/10.37741/t.68.2.3
CAMPAGNA, C.; GUEVARA, D.; LE BOEUF, B. Sustainable development as deus ex machina. Biological Conservation, 209, p.54-61, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.01.016
CAVALCANTE, M.B.; FURTADO, E.M. Políticas Públicas de Turismo em Unidades de Conservação (public policy for tourism in conservation units). Mercator, Fortaleza, v.10, n.21, p.133-146, apr. 2011. https://doi.org/10.4215/RM2011.1021. 0009
CHOI, H.C.; SIRAKAYA, E. Sustainability indicators for managing community tourism. Tourism Management, v.27, n.6, p.1274-1289, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.05.018
CLARK, W.C.; HARLEY, A.G. Sustainability Science: Toward a Synthesis. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, v.45, p.331-386, 2020. Disponível em: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:42660129. Acesso em: 5 maio 2023
CLARKE, J. A framework of approaches to sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, v.5, n.3, 1997.
COSTA, H.A. Destinos do turismo: percursos para a sustentabilidade. Rio de Janeiro: Editora FGV, 2013.
DALY, H.; COBB, C.W. For the common good: redirecting the economy toward community, the environment, and a sustainable future. Boston: Beacon Press,1989.
DEDUCE CONSORTIUM. Indicators Guidelines to adopt an indicators-based approach to evaluate coastal sustainable development. 2007. Disponível em: https://climate-adapt.eea.europa.eu/metadata/tools/deduceindicators-guidelines-to-adopt-an-indicators-based-approach-to-evaluate-coastal-sustainable-development.Acesso em 31 maio 2023.
DELMAS, M.A.; BURBANO, V.C. The Drivers of Greenwashing. California Management Review, v.54, n.1, Special Issue, p.6-87, 2011.
ELKINGTON, J. Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business. 1.ed. John Wiley and Sons Ltd,1997.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION. European Tourism Indicator System: ETIS toolkit for sustainable destination management. 2016. Disponível em: https://ec.europa.eu/docsroom/documents/21749. Acesso em: 30 maio 2023.
FAUCHEUX,S.; NÖEL,J-F. Economia dos recursos naturais e do meio ambiente. Lisboa: Instituto Piaget, 1995.
FODRANOVÁ, I.; KUBIČKOVÁ, V.; MICHALKOVÁ, A. Measuring societal value of tourism: A new approach. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, v.63, n.4, p.423-434, 2015.
FONT, X.; ELGAMMAL, I.; LAMOND, I. Greenhushing: the deliberate under communicating of sustainability practices by tourism businesses. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, v.25, n.7, p.1007-1023, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2016.1158829
FONTELES, J.O. Reconstrução de Territórios e Identidade: um olhar sobre Jericoacoara – Ceará (reconstruction of territories and identity: a look at Jericoacoara - Ceará). Mercator, Fortaleza, v.4, n.8, nov. 2008.
GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE TOURISM COUNCIL (GSTC). About the Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC). 2023. Disponível em:https://www.gstcouncil.org/about/. Acesso em: 31 maio 2023.
HEZRI,A.A. Sustainability indicator system and policy issues in Malaysia: a framework for utilisation and learning. Journal of Environmental Management, 73, p.357-71, 2004.
HUNTER,C. Aspects of the sustainable tourism debate from a natural resources perspective. In: HARRIS,R.; GRIFFIN,T.; WALL,G. (Org.). Sustainable Tourism: a global perspective. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002, p.3-33.
INNES, J.E.; BOOHER, D.E. Indicators for sustainable communities: a strategy building on complexity theory and distributed intelligence. Planning Theory & Practice, 1, p.173-86, 2000.
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE [IPCC]. Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009325844
KRIPPENDORF, J. The Holiday Makers: Understanding the Impact of Leisure and Travel. Oxford: Routledge, 2016.
LANDFORD, C. Managing for sustainable tourism: a review of six cultural World Heritage Sites. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17, p.53-70, 2009.
LATOUCHE, S. Le pari de la Décroissance. Paris: Fayard,2006.
LEIPER, N. Environmental impacts and ecosystems for tourism. Tourism Management, TAFE Publications, Melbourne,1995.
LIU, Z. Sustainable tourism development: a critique. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, v.11, n.06, 2003.
LOVELOCK, J. Beware: Gaia may destroy humans before we destroy the Earth. The Guardian. 2021. Disponível em: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2021/nov/02/beware-gaia-theory-climate-crisis-earth. Acesso em: 31 nov. 2021.
MARQUARDT, B. Historia de la sostenibilidad. Un concepto medio-ambiental en la historia de Europa central (1000-2006). Historia Crítica, 32, p.172-197, 2006.
MARTINS, M. Tourism planning and tourismphobia: an analysis of the strategic tourism plan of Barcelona 2010-2015. Journal of Tourism, Heritage & Services Marketing, v.4, n.1, p.3-7, 2018.
MATIKU, S.M.; ZUWARIMWE, J.; TSHIPALA, N. Sustainable tourism planning and management for sustainable livelihoods. Development Southern Africa, v.38, n.4, p.524-538, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/0376835X.2020.1801386
MCCOOL, S.F.; BOSAK, K. (Org.). Reframing Sustainable Tourism. Serie Environmental Challenges and Solutions. Ed.1, Dordrecht: Springer,2016.
MEADOWS, D. Indicators and Information Systems for Sustainable Development. Hartland: The Sustainability Institute,1998.
MEYER, J.; ROWAN, B. (1991). Institutionalized organizations: formal structure as myth and ceremony. In: DIMAGGIO,P.; POWELL,W. (Org.). The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, p.1-41,1991.
MILANO, C.; NOVELLI, M.; CHEER, J.M. Overtourism and degrowth: a social movements perspective. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, v.27, n.12, p.1857-1875, 2019.
MOESCH, M.M. El origen del conocimiento: el lugar de la experiencia y de la razón en la génesis del conocimiento del turismo. Estudios y Perspectivas en Turismo, v.22, n.5, p.985-1001, 2013.
MOUSSIOPOULOS, N.; ACHILLAS, C.; VLACHOKOSTAS, C.; SPYRIDI, D.; NIKOLAOU, K. Environmental, social and economic information management for the evaluation of sustainability in urban areas: A system of indicators for Thessaloniki, Greece. Cities, v.27, n.5, p.377-384, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2010.06.001
NASCIMENTO, E.P. The Trajectory of Sustainability: from environmental to social, from social to economic. Estudos Avançados, v.26, n.74, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-40142012000100005
NASCIMENTO, E.P. Um mundo de riscos e desafios: conquistar a sustentabilidade, reinventar a democracia, e eliminar a nova exclusão social. 1.ed.Brasília: Fundação Astrojildo Pereira,2020.
OLABI, A.G.; OBAIDEEN, K.; ELSAID, K.; WILBERFORCE, T.; SAYED, E.T.; MAGHRABIE, H.M.; ABDELKAREEM, M.A. Assessment of the pre-combustion carbon capture contribution into sustainable development goals SDGs using novel indicators. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 153,111710,2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2021.111710
PRESCOTT-ALLEN, R. Barometer of Sustainability: measuring and method illustrated by the wellbeing of nations. Cambridge: IUCN, 2001.
REBOLLO,J.F.V.; BAIDAL,J.A.I. Measuring sustainability in a mass tourist destination: pressures, perceptions and policy responses in Torrevieja, Spain. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, v.11, n.2-3, p.181-203, 2003.
REDCLIFT, M. Sustainable Development: Needs, Values, Rights. Environmental Values, 2, p.3-20, 1993.
RIPPLE, W.J.; WOLF, C.; NEWSOME, T.M.; GALETTI, M.; ALAMGIR, M.; CRIST, E;...LAURANCE, W.F. World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice. BioScience, v.67, n.12, p.1026-1028. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix125
RUHANEN, L.; MOYLE, C.L.; MOYLE, B. New directions in sustainable tourism research. Tourism Review, v.74, n.2, p.138-149, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-12-2017-0196
SACHS, I. Rumo à socioeconomia – teoria e prática do desenvolvimento. VIEIRA, P.F. (Org.). São Paulo: Cortez, 2007.
SACHS, I. Desenvolvimento: includente, sustentável, sustentado. Rio de Janeiro: Garamond, 2008.
SCARANO, F.R. The Emergence of Sustainbility. In: WEGNER, L.H; LÜTTGE, E.U.(Orgs.) Emergence and Modularity in Life Sciences. New York: Springer, p.51-66, 2019.
SCIPIONI, A.; MAZZI, A.; MASON, M.; MANZARDO, A. The dashboard of sustainability to measure the local urban sustainable development: the case study of Padua municipality. Ecological Indicators, 9, p.364-380, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. ecolind.2008.05.002
SHARPLEY, R. Tourism, sustainable development and the theoretical divide: 20 years on. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, v.28, n.11, p.1932-1946, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1779732
SILVA, M.J.R; GOMES, R.C.C. Nas Contradições do "Belo" a Exclusão Social do Turismo: um olhar sobre Ponta Negra (in the contradictions of the "beautiful" the social exclusion of the tourism: a glance on Ponta Negra). Mercator, Fortaleza, v. 3, n. 5, nov. 2008
SINGH, K.; GERA, R.; SHARMA, R.; MAITHANI, D.; CHANDRA, D.; BHAT, M.A... BHATT, P. Mechanism and application of Sesbania root-nodulating bacteria(...). Archives of Microbiology, 203, p.1259-1270, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-02137-x
SOLOW, R. The economics of resources or the resources of economics. American Economic Review, v.64, n.2, may, 1-14, 1974.
SOLOW,R. An Almost Practical Step Toward Sustainability. Resource Policy, v.19, n.3, p.162-172, 1993.
TASSO, J.P.F. À procura da inclusividade: estudo sobre os fatores de inclusão socioeconômica em destinos turísticos brasileiros. [Tese de doutoramento em Desenvolvimento Sustentável, CDS/UnB], 2014.
TORRES-DELGADO, A.; SAARINEN, J. Using indicators to assess sustainable tourism development: a review. Tourism Geographies, v.16, n.1, p.31-47, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2013.867530
TORRES-DELGADO, A.; PALOMEQUE, F.L. Measuring sustainable tourism at the municipal level. Annals of Tourism Research, 49, p.122-137, 2014.
TRIŠIĆ, I. Using indicators to assess sustainable tourism development: The case of protected natural areas of Vojvodina (Northern Serbia). Turizam, v.24, n.4, p.178-193, 2020. https://doi.org/10.5937/turizam24-26080
UNITED NATIONS [UN]. Our Common Future. 1987. Disponível em: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/5987our-common-future.pdf. Acesso em: 15 maio 2015.
VALLS, J.F. Gestão integral de destinos turísticos sustentáveis. Rio de Janeiro: FGV,2006.
VEIGA, J.E. O antropoceno e as humanidades. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2023.
VEIGA, J.E. Sustentabilidade: a legitimação de um novo valor. 3ª.ed. São Paulo: Senac, 2019.
WACKERMANN, G. Le développement durable. Paris: Ellipses, 2008.
WACKERNAGEL, M.; REES, W. Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers, 1996.
WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION [WTO]. ‘Overtourism’? Understanding and Managing Urban Tourism Growth beyond Perceptions. 2019. Disponível em: https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284420070. Acesso em: 31 maio 2020.
Published
24/05/2024
How to Cite
TASSO, João Paulo Faria; DA SILVA, David Leonardo Bouças; NASCIMENTO, Elimar Pinheiro do. MANDALA OF SUSTAINABILITY IN TOURISM. Mercator, Fortaleza, v. 23, may 2024. ISSN 1984-2201. Available at: <http://www.mercator.ufc.br/mercator/article/view/e23008>. Date accessed: 14 june 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.4215/rm2024.e23008.
Section
ARTICLES